The IT sector is blossoming. With the increased talent and availability of different technologies, it is easy for beginners, intermediates, and senior developers to try their luck in the IT sector. Machine learning has a particular spot in the leading technologies out of all the possible technologies gaining momentum in the current year. Do you know that the global machine learning market is set to expand at 42.08% CAGR between 2018 and 2024? It all comes down to developing your skills and applying them to different machine learning projects.
Let us help you with machine learning and the difference between deep learning and neural networks. First, we’ll understand the working of machine learning and the different methods used in it. You may get the basics of machine learning from online courses or other study materials; it all comes down to real-world machine learning use cases. We’ve incorporated a well-researched list of the top machine learning project ideas for your quick adaption to machine learning. Further, you’ll go through the list of critical challenges in machine learning which should be taken care of. Let us start with a quick definition of machine learning.
Table of Contents
What Is Machine Learning?
Machine learning or ML is the study of computer algorithms to imitate human learning to improve process efficiencies. It is a branch of artificial intelligence and is an essential concept in data science. It is possible to uncover the key insights, make classifications or predictions, etc., within the data mining projects. Businesses are unleashing the potential of machine learning to create practical applications.
Hence, machine learning effectively uses historical data to predict future output. It is easy for businesses to expect customer behavior using machine learning. The operational business patterns can be estimated to improve the development of new products development. It is different from deep learning and neural networks; however, these three terms are used interchangeably. Let us understand how?
Machine Learning vs. Deep Learning vs. Neural Networks
Machine learning, deep learning, and neural networks are different parts of artificial intelligence. Hence, it becomes important to understand the differences between these three. Let us quickly understand these three terms, followed by a quick comparison.
Machine Learning Vs. Deep Learning
Deep learning is the subset of machine learning. It uses the algorithm to enable the use of a large dataset, eliminates the manual human intervention, and works to extract the features from the process. Deep learning is called scalable machine learning. Machine learning is dependent on human intervention. It requires dedicated human experts to define the set of features to understand the differences between data inputs and needs more structured data for understanding.
Further deep learning doesn’t need a labeled dataset like the ones required in machine learning in its supervised learning. Deep learning doesn’t require human intervention like machine learning and can take unstructured data as raw input. Deep learning can automatically define the features set to differentiate one data category from the other. Hence, deep learning can scale machine learning with its practical use.
Deep Learning vs. Neural Network
A neural network is the sub-set of deep learning. It is also an artificial neural network (ANN) and has multiple node layers. These layers include the output layer, one or more hidden layers, the input layer, etc. Every node having different layers can be termed an artificial neuron that connects further with other nodes. All such nodes have associated threshold values and weight. If any node has output beyond its threshold value, it gets activated and shares data to the next network layer.
Deep learning in neural networks can be understood as the depth of layers in any neural network. Further, any neural network with more than three layers can be termed a deep neural or deep learning algorithm. While a neural network having two or three layers is a neural network only.
|Sr. No.||Machine Learning||Deep Learning||Neural Network|
|1||It is the superset of deep learning.||It is the subset of machine learning.||A neural network is a subset of deep learning.|
|2||The data used in machine learning is structured data.||It uses neural networks.||It uses different nodes.|
|3||It consists of thousands of data points.||It consists of millions of data points.||It consists of multiple nodes.|
|4||Some of the top examples include Google translate, dynamic pricing, self-driving cars, virtual personal assistants, product recommendations, social media, etc.||Some of the leading examples include face recognition, money laundering, the vision of driverless cars, virtual assistants, etc.||Some of the top examples include the Kohonen network, the Boltzmann machine, the Hopfield network, the multilayer perceptron, etc.|
How Does Machine Learning Work?
The working of machine learning can be understood in three different steps as follows:
1. Decision Process
Any machine learning algorithm is used to make classification of data or predictions. The input data used here can be labeled or unlabeled data. The algorithm hence gives an estimate of the data patterns.
2. The Error Function
Evaluates the prediction of the machine learning model. The error function can compare and access the accuracy of the machine learning model.
3. Model Optimization Process
The data points in the training set fit the model until the discrepancies between the model estimate and the known examples are reduced. It is achieved by adjusting the weights until the threshold of accuracy is reached, and the algorithm keeps on repeating the evaluation and optimization.
Machine Learning Methods
It is crucial to understand that machine learning can be achieved in three different methods. These are
1. Supervised Machine Learning
It is also called supervised learning. It uses labeled datasets to train algorithms to classify data or predict results precisely. The input data fed to the model adjusts its weight until it has fitted the model properly. It is part of the model cross-validation process, ensuring no underfitting or overfitting in the model. The popular methods used in supervised machine learning are support vector machine (SVM), random forest, logistic regression, linear regression, naïve Bayes, neural networks, etc. This machine learning method can help businesses solve multiple real-world problems like separating spam mails from the inbox folder, etc.
2. Unsupervised Machine Learning
It is also called unsupervised learning. It works by using machine learning algorithms that discover hidden patterns or data groups without the need for human efforts. These algorithms analyze and cluster the unlabeled datasets while finding differences and similarities between information. The supporting algorithms used in unsupervised machine learning are probabilistic clustering methods, k-means clustering, neural networks, etc. It is used in image recognition, pattern recognition, customer segmentation, cross-selling strategies, exploratory data analysis, etc. For reducing the number of features in the model through dimensionality reduction process using two approaches- singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA).
3. Semi-Supervised Learning
It comes as an intermediate between supervised machine learning and unsupervised machine learning. It extracts the large and unlabeled data set for features or classification to form a small labeled dataset. The semi-supervised machine learning method can resolve the issues of insufficient labeled data required to train a supervised learning algorithm.
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Real-World Machine Learning Use Cases
It is crucial to understand the real-world machine learning use cases for better implementation of different machine learning project ideas. Some of the widely popular real-world machine learning applications include
1. Speech Recognition
The use of natural language processing or NLP with machine learning techniques can process human speech into written format. Multiple mobile devices and smart devices offer accessibility to the users around texting. It is also called speech-to-text, automatic speech recognition (ASR), etc.
2. Customer Service
Artificial intelligence and machine learning have offered online chatbots when they replace human intervention in customer service. These applications can handle customer engagement on social media or business websites, suggesting sizes for users, cross-selling products, offering personalized advice, shipping details, frequently asked questions around topics, etc. Some of the ideal customer service applications of machine learning are messaging apps, virtual agents, virtual assistants, voice assistants, etc.
3. Computer Vision
Machine learning has helped systems and computers to drive meaningful information from visual inputs, digital images, videos, etc. Based on these inputs, the information is used to offer recommendations which make it a step higher over the traditional image recognition tasks. Some of the top computer vision applications include self-driving cars within the automotive industry, radiology imaging in healthcare, photo tagging in social media, etc. It is powered by convolutional neural networks.
4. Recommendation Engines
It becomes easy for online businesses to add some recommendations to the customers during the check-out process. Machine learning and artificial intelligence can power the algorithms to discover data trends that can perform effective cross-selling strategies. The past consumer behavior can be the ideal dataset for online retail businesses.
5. Automated Stock Trading
Artificial intelligence-based high-frequency trading platforms are used by global investors. It can easily handle multiple online transactions with the least human intervention. Hence, automated stock trading can help businesses optimize their stock portfolios.
Top Machine Learning Project Ideas That You Can Implement
Machine learning is one of the exclusive technologies which can’t be learned with conceptual knowledge. Hence, it is crucial to go through the main project ideas before implementing machine learning. So, here is a quick list of the top machine learning project ideas that you can implement to increase your working knowledge of machine learning and go beyond its basics.
1. Titanic Survival Project
It can be used with the help of the Titanic dataset on Kaggle. It is one of the best beginner projects in machine learning. As the name suggests, it deals with the Titanic disaster and predicts the passengers who survived the Titanic shipwreck. It is based on the passenger’s data like socio-economic class, gender, age, etc. The dataset available for this machine learning project has real data based on the Titanic passengers, including the ones who survived and died during the shipwreck.
2. Personality Prediction Project
It can be created with the help of the Personality prediction dataset available on the Kaggle. It allows a quick understanding of the people’s overall personality by going through their online posts. It tends to improve the confusion on the internet and works on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Hence, this machine learning project aims to find the Myers Briggs personality of the person depending on the type of social media posts placed by them. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is an established personality identification system that divides a person into 16 different personalities. The base of this division is certain capabilities like perceiving, thinking, intuition, and introversion. The axis for the Myers Briggs Type Indicator test ranges from Judging (J) to Perceiving (P), Thinking (T) to Feeling (F), Intuition (I) to Sensing (S), Introversion (I) to Extroversion (E).
3. Loan Prediction Project
The Loan Prediction data set can be used to create the machine learning model, which defines the amount of loan which can be approved and offers details of all the factors used in this process. Hence, it is easy to know how much loan can be given to the applicant based on the different factors. It eliminates the possible hassles in getting a loan from the bank. The factors considered in this loan prediction project include the number of dependents on the applicant, employment prospects, education, income, married status, etc. It is an ideal project idea for beginners in machine learning.
4. Stock Price Prediction Project
Stock market investment is gaining momentum like never before. So why not go for a machine learning project which predicts the stock prices? The stock market dataset available on Kaggle makes it easy for the developers to start creating their first machine learning project based on the stock price prediction. While the stock market remains a dynamic field, it becomes difficult to predict the stock market without dedicated machine learning. This project aims to predict the future stock prices based on the past stock market details like calculated returns, trading volume, closing price, opening price, news data about the company’s assets, etc.
5. Xbox Game Prediction Project
This machine learning project can be created using the prediction dataset offered by BestBuy, which is a popular consumer electronics company. This company offers data on different search queries of the customers interested in the different types of Xbox gaming versions. Hence, this Xbox Game Prediction Project predicts the type of Xbox gaming which are mostly searched on the different online portals by the prospective customers. It takes into consideration the different details like query time, click time, query, category of the item, the item most clicked by the user, user ID, etc.
6. Housing Prices Prediction Project
It can be created using the Housing Prices Prediction Project dataset on the Kaggle and can predict the house prices based on different features. It aims to facilitate the process of buying or selling a house for different users. While many potential buyers and sellers consider the main factors like size, location, number of rooms, etc., they may miss on some of the other crucial factors. This machine learning project aims to predict the final price of the house based on factors like roof materials, garage quality, proximity, utilities, land contour, street, area, frontage, etc. It can be used by beginners and professionals in machine learning.
7. Sales Prediction Project
This project can be completed using the sales data set available on the Kaggle. This data set has a training set and test set, which can be used to forecast sales in this machine learning project. This machine learning project can help businesses estimate the products sale monthly. The daily sales data of the shops can help predict the upcoming sales. Hence, if implemented correctly, this sales prediction project can be a boon for small and big retail stores of different brands.
8. Digit Recognizer Project
The required dataset for this machine learning project can be extracted from Kaggle. The Digit Recognizer Project requires brushed up skills for certain technologies like K-nearest neighbors, Support Vector Machine, simple neural networks, etc. This machine learning project helps improve the computer vision skills of the user. It creates a machine-learning algorithm to identify the digits from different datasets having handwritten images. The data set used in this Digit Recognizer Project has handwritten digits, tens of thousands of images, etc. Hence, it can be an interesting project for machine learning professionals.
9. Credit Card Approval Prediction
Like loans, it is difficult for a person to obtain credit cards. Credit card approval needs a long list of factors to establish if the person is trustworthy to pay the credit bills or not. At the same time, some companies use the credit score to do this task and release credit cards accordingly. Hence, the credit card approval prediction project is an ideal machine learning model which can indicate whether a person is good or bad for credit card approval. The data used in this project covers all the concerning factors like the way of living, education level, income category, annual income, etc., of the applicants.
10. IMDB Box Office Prediction
This project can be completed with the dataset from Kaggle. Beginners or professional machine learning developers can go for this movie-related project idea that predicts the worldwide box office revenue of different films. Movies often get a hit or flop response due to multiple factors. It is observed that numerous dollar projects also fail, while some limited budgets movies can be a hit at the box office. Hence, the IMDB Box Office Prediction is the ideal machine learning project which considers different factors like countries, languages, release dates, production companies, budget, plot keywords, posters, crew, movie cast, etc. All these factors have a significant impact on movie ratings.
11. Cartoonify Image
The source code for this machine learning project is available on OpenCV. The Cartoonify Image with machine learning can seamlessly transform images into its cartoon. The code for completing this project uses the Python application to convert the image into cartoons. Developers use machine learning libraries in this project.
12. Iris Flowers Classification Project
This project can be completed with the help of a dataset from ICS. It comes with detailed datasets containing information on different iris species. The various species of the Iris flowers, based on the length of petals and sepals, can be distinguished using machine learning. It is an ideal project for the machine learning beginners, which helps predict the new iris flower species.
13. Create Your Own Emoji
The source code for this machine learning project can be extracted from the Data Flair website. It can be used by beginners and expert machine learning professionals to classify different human facial expressions. The conversion of human expressions to respective emojis makes an exciting application. It is easy to build a convolution neural network and recognize facial emotions. These emotions can be mapped with respective emojis or avatars.
14. Fake News Detection Project
This machine learning project can be completed by extracting the source code from the Data Flair website. The professionals in machine learning can go for the Fake News Detection Project to eliminate a major concern of modern times. It becomes easy to distinguish fake news from real news based on the dataset used in this machine learning project.
15. Sentiment Analysis
This machine learning project can be completed using a dataset from Stanford University and source code from the Data Flair website. This is one of the advanced machine learning projects which helps analyze the different emotions of the users. The emotions of the users can be divided into positive, negative, or neutral. This machine learning project, if implemented correctly, can help multiple businesses improve their services and reduce customer churn.
Challenges Of Machine Learning
When asked about artificial intelligence technologies, implementing machine learning has multiple ethical concerns in businesses. Hence, the interested developers need to go through the main challenges in machine learning before starting a project. Some of the critical challenges in machine learning are
1. Technological Singularity
Machine learning and artificial intelligence come with the risks of superintelligence in the future. With the development in technology, the technological singularity is one of the persisting concerns. Some of the top examples include the invention of self-driven cars meeting with accidents. There is a question on the liability and responsibility under such circumstances involving machine learning. Hence, it is crucial to decide when is the right time to stop relying on machine learning and introduce human intervention for controlled applications.
2. AI Impact On Jobs
Like any other technology, artificial intelligence has an impact on jobs. With the increasing demand for artificial intelligence and machine learning, it becomes inevitable that there will be a rise in the experienced workforce managing these technologies. Hence, a significant change in the job demand is expected with the increasing machine learning projects. This can cause a setback to the different other positions, which were managed by skilled professionals before the launch of the machine learning services. Hence, impacting the jobs of multiple skilled workers can be another important challenge for machine learning projects.
Machine learning and artificial intelligence are incomplete without data. With large data sources comes the risk of data threats. Hence, it becomes important for businesses to invest in dedicated privacy features while implementing machine learning and artificial intelligence. Some of the mandatory regulations are GDPR compliances which are mandatory for the European Union, California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), etc. Hence, it becomes important for businesses to abide by these regional regulations while storing and using customer data. Advanced technologies like machine learning have to abide by the same set of privacy standards to adhere to strict privacy compliances.
4. Bias & Discrimination
When it comes to the trained data in machine learning, some research indicates the inclining of data towards a particular side. This creates a challenge for businesses as bias and discrimination may limit the efficiency of machine learning. This bias and discrimination are observed when artificial intelligence is used for recruitment processes, social media algorithms, and facial recognition software. Hence, while businesses are becoming aware of this limitation, an active discussion is set across artificial intelligence ethics and values.
Artificial intelligence has no ethical supervision by a regulated body. Hence, it becomes difficult to evaluate if the right machine learning practices are followed in an organization. However, multiple researchers and ethicists have created the guidelines for the construction and distribution of artificial intelligence models to different businesses. There is a long way to go for accountability as these guidelines offer the combination of distributed responsibility and refrain from clear accountability in events of damage.
With the expected growth of 14% in the global GDP by the end of 2030 with machine learning and artificial intelligence only, it is the perfect time to start investing in top machine learning projects. Hence, it is easy to go through the top machine learning project ideas that beginners or experienced developers can implement.
It is easy to go through the different machine learning methods starting with the quick definition of machine learning, deep learning, and neural networks. The different real-world machine learning methods make it easy to understand the real-world use cases and understand the top machine learning project ideas. It becomes easy to understand machine learning challenges and go for this technology quickly.