An on-demand, the first multitenant programming language, Apex is helpful for the developers who need to build the next generation of business apps. The method that developers follow to build on-demand apps, Apex transforms it. 

In Salesforce, developers may use Apex to develop CRM apps that offer client-server interfaces and Salesforce database access to craft 3rd-party SaaS apps. Moreover, with Apex, you can customize pre-built apps as per the needs of complex businesses.

In this post, we will learn the basics about Apex, its syntax, top features, core concept, working, uses, and more. 

What Is Apex?

Salesforce developed a strongly typed and object-oriented programming language, namely Apex, for crafting Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Software as a Service (SaaS). 

Developers can opt for Apex to build 3rd-party SaaS applications and append business logic to the system events, like Visualforce pages and button clicks, by offering client-server interfaces and back-end database support. 

Furthermore, Apex facilitates developers to execute the transaction and flow control statements in conjunction with calls to the API on the platform server. 

Also read: How to call Flows from Apex?

Apex is based on Java and has a Java-like syntax; however, some classes and syntax apart from the programming style hold different nature as it’s more similar to web development than standalone app development. Apex performs like database stored procedures, and the Apex Code initiates from triggers on objects and Web service requests. 

You can find Apex in Salesforce Unlimited Edition, Performance Edition, Developer Edition, and Enterprise Edition. 

Apex Syntax – A Proper Analysis

Typically, Apex code includes various things from other programming languages that we may already know. 

1. Variable Declaration

As mentioned above, Apex is a strongly typed language; you need to declare a variable with data type in this language. 

Let’s take an example:

contact con = new contact(); 


Variable con is declared as a datatype with contact. 

2. SOQL Query

It stands for Salesforce Object Query Language (SOQL) and is used to fetches Object records from the Salesforce database. 

Again, let’s take an example

Account acc = [select id, name from Account Limit 1]; 

This query fetches account records from the Salesforce database. 

3. Loop Statement

In a list, a loop statement helps iteration over the records. The number of iterations is equivalent to the number of records in the list. 

For example:

list<Account>listOfAccounts = [select id, name from account limit 100];
// iteration over the list of accounts
for(Account acc : listOfAccounts){
 //your logic

In this snippet of code, listOfAccounts is a variable of list datatype.

4. Flow Control Statement

When you execute a few lines of code as per some conditions, a flow control statement is perfect for that. 

For example:

list<Account>listOfAccounts = [select id, name from account limit 100];
// execute the logic if the size of the account list is greater than zero
if(listOfAccounts.size() >0){
 //your logic

This snippet code is inquiring about the account records from the database and checking the list size. 

5. DML Statement

Stands for Data Manipulation Language, DML statements are used for data manipulation in the Salesforce database. 

For example:

Account acc = new Account(Name = ‘ Test Account’);
Insert acc; //DML statement to create account record.

Features Of Apex As A Language – Top Highlights 

Now, let’s discuss the features of Apex as a language:

1. Easy Testing

Apex offers in-built support for unit test creation and execution, embracing test results that reveal the details about the code coverage and let us know the parts of code that can be organized well. 

2. Multitenant Environment

Apex runs in a multitenant environment, so the Apex runtime engine is designed to protect it from runaway code and safeguard it from dominating the shared resources. Any code that breaches the limits just fails with simple error messages.

3. Strongly Typed

As mentioned above, Apex is a strongly typed language that uses the direct reference to schema objects, such as sObject. Any invalid reference immediately fails if it belongs to the wrong data type or if deleted. 

4. Strongly Integrated With Data

Data-focused, Apex is designed to execute together various queries and DML statements. On Database, it gives multiple transaction statements. 

5. Java-like syntax and easy to use

As Apex uses Java-like syntax, it’s easy to use. For instance, loop syntax, variable declaration, and conditional statements. 

6. Upgrades Automatically

Apex is upgraded automatically as a part of Salesforce. So, there’s no need to upgrade it manually. 

7.  Integrated

Apex holds in-built support for DML operations, such as UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE, and DML Exception handling. It supports inline SOQL and SOSL query handling, which come back with the set of sObjects records. 

Understanding Apex Core Concepts

Typically, Apex code includes various things with other programming languages that you may already know. 

Let’s check out the programming elements in Apex:

elements in Apex
Elements In Apex

Below, we will describe the basic functionality of Apex and some of its core concepts:

1. Using Loops

While the if statement permits your app to perform the things according to a condition, loops facilitate your app to conduct the same thing as the condition repeatedly. Apex supports the below loops types:

1. While Loop: At the start, before executing code, it examines the condition.

2. For Loop: It allows you to control the condition that’s used with the loop. Additionally, Apex supports the old For loops that enable you to set the conditions, and the For loops use SOQL queries, and lists are part of the condition. 

3. Do-while Loop: This loop checks the condition after the execution of code. 

2. Using Version Settings

In the Salesforce UI, you can identify the Salesforce API version against which you need to save your Apex class or trigger. This setting specifies the version of SOAP API to use and the Apex version also. 

  • You can alter the version after saving. 
  • Every trigger or class name needs to be unique. 
  • You can’t save the exact trigger or class against different versions. 
  • Also, you can use the version settings to link a trigger or class with a specific version of a managed package that’s installed in your company from AppExchange. If the later versions of the managed package are installed, this version can be used by the trigger or class unless you update the version setting manually. 
  • If you want to add an installed managed package to the settings, you can select a package from the available packages list. The list can be displayed if you hold an installed package not already associated with the trigger or class.  

3. Using Collections

Apex arrives with the below collections types:

  • Lists (arrays)
  • Sets
  • Maps

a) List 

A collection of elements, like Strings, Integers, objects, or more, namely a list, is best when the elements’ sequence is essential. In a list, you can duplicate the elements. 

In a list, the first index position is always 0.

To create a list, you need to:

  • Use the ‘new’ keyword.
  • Use the ‘List’ keyword and the element type included within <> characters.

You can use the below syntax for creating a list:

List <datatype> list_name
   [= new List<datatype>();] |
   [=new List<datatype>{value [, value2. . .]};] |

For example, the below code creates a list of Integers and assigns it to the variable ‘My_List.’ As Apex is strongly typed, you need to declare the data type of ‘My_List’ as an Integer list:

List<Integer> My_List = new List<Integer>();

b) Sets

A collection of unordered, unique elements, namely a set, can include primitive data types, like Integer, String, Date, and more. Moreover, it can consist of more complex data types, like sObjects. 

To create a set, you need to:

  • Use the ‘new’ keyword.
  • Use the ‘Set’ keyword and the element type included within <> characters.

You can create a set using the below syntax:

Set<datatype> set_name 
   [= new Set<datatype>();] |
   [= new Set<datatype>{value [, value2. . .] };] |

For example, the below creates a set of String. The curly braces {} include the values of the set that you need to pass.

Set<String> My_String = new Set<String>{'a', 'b', 'c'};

c) Maps

In a collection of key-value pairs (can be primitive data type), the values may contain primitive data types, objects, and other collections in a map. You can use a map when you need to find something by key. In a map, you can duplicate values, but every key needs to be unique. 

To create a map, you need to:

  • Use the ‘new’ keyword.
  • Use the ‘Map’ keyword and ahead that use a key-value pair bounded by a comma and included in <> characters.

You can use the below syntax to create a map:

Map<key_datatype, value_datatype> map_name
   [=new map<key_datatype, value_datatype>();] | 
   [=new map<key_datatype, value_datatype>
   {key1_value => value1_value 
   [, key2_value => value2_value. . .]};] |

The examples below create a map containing a String for the value and a data type of Integer for the key. 

Below, as the map is being created, the map’s values are passed between the curly braces {}.

Map<Integer, String> My_Map = new Map<Integer, String>{1 => 'a', 2 => 'b', 3 => 'c'};

4. Using Variables and Expressions

A strongly-types language, Apex demands you to declare a variable’s data type when at first you refer to it. 

Apex data type contains basic types, like Date, Integer, and Boolean, along with the more advanced types, like maps, lists, sObjects, and objects. 

You can declare variables using a name and a data type. Moreover, when you declare a variable, you can assign a value. Also, you can do that later. 

You can use the below syntax while declaring variables:

datatype variable_name [ = value];

#Note: At the end of the above example, the semi-colon is not optional; you should end every statement using a semi-colon. 

5. Naming Variables, Methods, & Classes

You can’t use any Apex reserved keywords while naming methods, variables, or classes. These contain words that are a part of Apex and the Lightning platform, like ‘test,’ ‘list,’ or ‘account’ and reserved keywords. 

6. Using Statements

Any coded instruction is a statement that performs an action. 

In Apex, the statements should end up with a semicolon and can be of any of the below types:

  • Loops:
    1. Do-while
    2. While
    3. For
  • Exception Handling
  • Conditional (if-else)
  • Method Invoking
  • Assignment, like assigning a value to a variable
  • Transaction Control
  • Locking
  • Data Manipulation Language (DML)

A series of statements, a block is grouped with curly braces, and you can use it in any place where a single statement may be allowed. 

For example: 

if (true) {
} else {

In cases where a block includes just one statement, you can avoid using the curly braces.

For example: 

if (true) 

7. Using Branching

An ‘if’ statement is a true-false test that facilitates your app to do distinct things as per a condition. The basic syntax is as below:

if (Condition){
// Do this if the condition is true
} else {
// Do this if the condition is not true

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How Does Apex Work?

All apex runs on the Lightning Platform and is fully on-demand. 

a). Flow of Actions

Two sequences of actions exist in Apex, one when the developer saves the code and the other when the end-user conduct some activities that invoke the Apex code as below: 

When developers write Apex code and save to the platform, the end-users use the user interface to trigger the Apex code execution.

Apex is entirely compiled, run, and stored on the Lightning Platform. 

b). Developer Action

When a developer writes Apex code and saves it to the platform, first, the platform application server compiles the code into an abstract set of instructions that the Apex runtime interpreter understands, and ahead it saves those instructions as metadata. 

c). End-User Action

When an end-user triggers the Apex execution, it might be just by clicking a button or accessing a Visualforce page; the platform application server gets the compiled instructions from the metadata. Before returning the outcome, it sends them through the runtime interpreter. From the standard platform requests, the end-user notices no difference in execution time.

When Should I Use Apex?

The Salesforce pre-built apps offer robust CRM functionality. Additionally, Salesforce provides the caliber to customize the pre-built apps to best fit your company. Although, your company may hold complex business processes that the existing functionality may not support. 

In such a case, Lightning Platform offers advanced administrators and developers many ways to craft custom functionality. 

a). Apex

You can use Apex to:

  • Create email services.
  • Craft web services.
  • Conduct complex validation over various objects. 
  • Build custom transactional logic (logic that emerges over the whole transaction, not just with a single object or record).
  • Develop complex business processes that workflow doesn’t support.
  • Attach custom logic to different operations, like saving a record, so that it appears on every operation execution, regardless of whether it occurs from SOAP API or in the user interface, a Visualforce page. 


Suppose you need to append functionality to a composite app that processes just one record type at a time and doesn’t need any transactional control, like rolling back the changes or a Savepoint. In that case, you can use standard SOAP API. 

c). Lightning Components

To customize Lightning Experience, you need to develop Lightning components. Also, you can use exceptional components to pace up the development. 

As of Spring ’19 (API version 45.0), you can develop Lightning components utilizing two programming models: the original Aura Components model and the Lightning Web Components model. Lightning web componenets are custom HTML elements developed using HTML and the latest JavaScript. 

Aura components and Lightning web componenets can interoperate and coexist on a page. 

You need to configure Aura and Lightning web components to perform in Experience Builder and Lightning App Builder. End users and admins are unaware of the programming model used to build the componenets, and they get them just like Lightning components. 

d). Visualforce

Visualforce includes a tag-based markup language that offers developers a robust way to build apps and customize the Salesforce user interface. With Visualforce, you can:

  • Develop wizards and other multistep processes.
  • Define data-specific rules and navigation patterns for efficient, optimal application interaction.
  • Craft your custom flow control through an app. 

Apex Development Environment

Let’s dig deeper into the Apex Development Environment to get better. 

You can develop Apex code in the sandbox or the developer edition in Salesforce. 

The best practice to develop the code is in the sandbox environment and later deploy it to the production environment.

Apex Development Environment

Apex Code Development Tools

Below are the three tools used to develop the Apex code in every Salesforce edition. 

  • IDE
  • Developer Console
  • Code Editor in the Salesforce User Interface

1. Batch Class In Apex

In Salesforce, the Batch class helps process many records that may exceed the Apex governor limits if normally processed. It executes the code asynchronously.

Advantages Of Batch Class

  • The batch class processes the data in chunks, and if a piece fails to process, the rest of the successfully processed chunks don’t roll back.
  • In a batch class, every piece of data is processed using a new set of governor limits that makes sure that code executes within the walls of the governor execution limits.
  • An Apex class needs to implement a Database.Batchable interface that can be used as a batch class. It offers three modes that the batch class should implement. 

Database.Batchable interface offers the three methods as below:

a). start()

This method generates the scope of objects or records that the interface method processes. During the batch execution, it’s called just once. This method either returns an Iterable or a Database.QueryLocator object. 

The number of records that the SQL query retrieve using the Database.QueryLocator object is about 50 million records, but with an iterable, the SQL query can retrieve 50000 only as of the total number of records. 

For batch class, iterable, generate the complex scope. 

Syntax of start method:

global (Database.QueryLocator | Iterable<sObject>) start(Database.BatchableContextbc) {}
b). execute()

This method helps in processing every data chunk. For every chunk of records, execute method is called. For execution, the default batch size is 200 records. Execute method demands two arguments:

  • A reference to the Database.BatchableContext object,
  • A list of sObjects, like a list of parameterized types or List<sObject>, 

Syntax of execute method():

global void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, list<P>){}
c). finish()

During the execution of the batch class, the finish method is called just once. In the finish method, post-processing operations can be conducted. 

For example: sending the confirmation email.

When all the batches are processed, this method is called. 

Syntax of Finish method:

global void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){}

2. Database.BatchableContext object

All the methods of Database.BatchableContext interface holds a reference to Database.BatchableContext object. 

You can use this object to track the batch job’s progress. 

Below are the instance methods that BatchableContext offers:

a). getChildJobId()

It returns a batch job’s ID that is processed right now.

b). getJobId()

It returns the batch job’s ID.

The syntax of a batch class:

global class MyBatchClass implements Database.Batchable<sObject> {
global (Database.QueryLocator | Iterable<sObject>) start(Database.BatchableContextbc) {
// collect the batches of records or objects to be passed to execute
global void execute(Database.BatchableContextbc, List<P> records){
// process each batch of records
global void finish(Database.BatchableContextbc){
// execute any post-processing operations

3. Database.executeBatch Method

It is used for a batch class execution. 

This method takes two parameters:

  • The instance of the batch class that we need to process,
  • Options parameter that specifies the batch size (if not specified, the default size of 200 is taken)

Syntax of Database.executeBatch :


Executing a batch class; 

class name = MyBatchClass

MyBatchClassmyBatchObject = new MyBatchClass(); 
Id batchId = Database.executeBatch(myBatchObject,100);

4. Database.stateful 

Every chunk of Apex batches (be it one or 200) comes along with its execution context and the refreshed limits for processing increased records in your system.

Sometimes you may want to store information produced from a business process or processed records. How can you keep this state if every execution comes with a new state and a new context?

Here arrives Database.Stateful.

When the execute method alters or changes a class variable for the usage in the finish method or across various execute methods, it’s stateful. 

By default, the Batch class is stateless. Whenever the execute method is called, you will receive a new copy of an object, and every variable of the class is initialized. 

To make a batch class stateful, you need to implement Database.stateful.

After your batch class implements the Database.stateful interface, all the instance variable will retain their values, but the static variables become reset between the transaction. 

Maintaining a state is essential for summarizing or counting records as they are processed. 

Well, it’s optional to use Database.Stateful. But, it’s useful when counting and calculating the records being processed. 

One important about the Database. Stateful is that it drops the performance as at the end of all the execution methods, the class will be sterilized to keep its state. This way, the processing time gets increased for your BatchApex, so you need to use it wisely. 

Data Type In Apex

Let’s check out what datatypes Apex supports.

1. Primitive

Integer, Long, Date, Double, Date-Time, Boolean, ID, and String are the primitive data types in Apex. All these are not passed by reference; they are passed by value. 

2. Collections

In Apex, there are three types of collection:

  • Set: An unordered collection of unique primitives make a set.
  • List: An ordered collection of sObjects, primitives, Apex objects, or collections based on indices makes a list.
  • Map: A collection of primitive, unique keys that map to single values that can be collections, sObjects, primitives, or Apex objects. 

3. Enums

An abstract data type with the values that take on strictly one of the finite identifiers’ set each that you specify is Enum.

4. sObject

In Salesforce, a special data type is sObject, which is similar to a SQL table and includes fields similar to columns in SQL. 

5. Classes

Like in Java, you can create classes in Apex also. A class is a blueprint or template from which objects are created. 

6. Objects

It is any data type that Apex supports. An object is an instance of a class.


It’s like a class where no methods are implemented; you will only find the method signature. The body of every method remains empty. You need to implement another class to use an interface by offering a body for all the methods that the interface contains. 

Apex Trigger

It allows you to execute custom apex before and post the execution of DML operation. 

Apex support two types of triggers:

  • Before Triggers: You can use these triggers when you need to validate and update the value of a field before the record is saved to the database.
  • After Triggers: These triggers are best to access the fields set by the system post a record is committed to the database. You can use such value of fields to modify other records, and records are read-only that fire after triggers. 

You can write bulky triggers that can process single and multiple records simultaneously. 

Syntax of an apex trigger:

Syntax of an apex trigger:

trigger TriggerName on ObjectName (trigger_events) {


TriggerName = The name of the trigger, 

ObjectName = The name of the object on which the trigger will be written, 

trigger_events = The comma-separated events list.

Below are the events the Apex triggers support:

  • Before insert
  • Before the update
  • Before delete
  • After insert
  • After an update
  • After delete
  • After undelete

In an Apex trigger, you can’t use Static keywords, and you can just use the keywords that are applicable to inner classes.

Every trigger defines an implicit variable that returns the run-time context, and such variables are defined in the system. 

Trigger Class: You can use such variables as context variables to access run-time context information in a trigger. 

Apex Access Specifier

Apex facilitates the usage of the private, public, protected, and global access specifiers when defining variables or methods. 

By default, a variable or method is visible just to the Apex code within the defining class. 

You need to specify a variable as public to make it available to their classes in the same application namespace. 

You can also change the visibility level by using the below access modifiers (a new and official term used instead of access specifier):

1. Public

It offers access to a method, class, or variable that an Apex use within a namespace. 

2. Private

This access specifier offers access to the method, class, and variable locally or within the code section in which it’s defined. All the variables or techniques have private access specifier by default that doesn’t have any access specifiers. 

3. Protected

This access specifier provides access to a variable or method that any inner classes use within defining Apex class. 

4. Global

It offers access to a method, class, or variable that an Apex use within and outside the namespace. It is a best practice not to use global keywords until required. 

Apex Class

An apex class is a template or blueprint from which the objects are created. The instance of a class is an object.

You can create Apex classes following any of the three ways below in Salesforce:

  • Apex class detail page
  • IDE
  • Developer Console

Refer here to learn adding an apex class

In Apex, you can define a top-level class, also known as an outer class, and also define classes within an outer class, known as inner classes. 

It is necessary to use an access modifier, like a public or global as it’s mandatory in the outer class declaration.

However, it’s not mandatory to use an access modifier in the inner class declaration.

  • Class Keyword: To define Apex class, you can use the class keyword followed by the name of the class. 
  • Extend Keyword: You can use Extends keyword to extend your existing class by an apex class.
  • Implements Keyword: It is used to implement an interface by an apex class. 
  • New Keyword: You can use it to create an instance of an Apex class. 
myApexClass obj = new myApexClass();

Salesforce Apex doesn’t support multiple inheritance but can implement multiple interfaces. You can use an apex class to extend one existing apex class.

An Apex class can include a user-defined constructor, and if a user-defined constructor is not available, you can use a default constructor. 

In a constructor, code executes when a class’s instance is created. 

Syntax of the Apex Class example:

public class myApexClass{
// variable declaration
 public myApexClass{
//methods declaration

Also read: How To Call Apex Class in Process Builder

Apex Getter & Setter

Apex property is like an apex variable. For an Apex property, Getter and Setter are essential and can be used to execute code before modifying or accessing the property value. 

When a property value is read in the get accessor, the code executes.

When a property value is modified in the set accessor, the code runs. 

  • Read-Only – When a property has a get accessor.
  • Write-only – When a property has a set accessor.
  • Read-write – When a property has both get and set accessor.

Syntax of Apex Property:

public class myApexClass {
// Property declaration
 access_modifierreturn_typeproperty_name {
 get {


access_modifier = The access modifier of the property.

return_type = The datatype of the property.

property-name = The name of the property.

An example of an Apex Property having both get and set accesor:

public class myApex{
 public String name{
  get{ return name;}
  set{ name = 'Test';}


name = The property name, which is the public property, returns a string data type.

It’s unnecessary to have the same code in the get and set block, so you can leave them empty to define an automatic property. 

For example:

public double MyReadWriteProp{ get; set; } 

You can define get and set with their access modifier. If you do so, it will override the access modifier for the property. 

For example:

public String name{private get; set;}// name is private to read, and the public to write.

Keywords In Apex

Apex keywords, also known as reserved keywords, are specific keywords that act as a key to a code. Apex has defined these keywords as predefined words, so you can’t use them as an object name or variable as per the needs. 

1. With Sharing Keyword

It imposes the org’s sharing rules that apply to the current user. It is usually known as user mode also. 

2. Without Sharing Keyword

It ensures that the org’s sharing rules don’t apply to the current user, and it’s usually known as system mode.  

3. Class

It is used to declare or define a class.

4. Virtual

It declares or defines a method or class that permits overrides and extension. With the override keyword, we can’t override a method unless you define the method or class as virtual, which means if a class is virtual, then it can allow extension. If a method is virtual, it will enable overrides in a subclass. 

5. Abstract 

This keyword helps define or declare an abstract class, and it contains abstract and non-abstract methods. 

6. Interface

It is used to declare an interface and can have just abstract methods. A class can consistently implement an interface, and an interface can always extend another interface.

7. Extends 

This keyword defines a class that extends another class, it means a child class holds the caliber to extend a parent class using the extend keywords. 

8. Implements

The implement keyword is used to implement an interface. 

9. This

It represents the current instance of a class in constructor chaining. 

10. Static

It defines a variable or method that’s just once initialized at a class level and is associated with an outer class. Also, we can call static methods or variables directly by class name; there’s no need to create the instance of a class. 

11. Final

It is used to define methods and constants that you can’t override within the child class.

12. Super

It invokes a constructor on a superclass.

13. Transient

It declares instance variables that can’t be saved and shouldn’t be transmitted as part of the view state in the extensions and visualforce controllers.

14. Return

It returns a value from a method.

15. Null

This keyword defines a null constant that you can assign to any variable to remove the garbage value.

16. Global

It is an access modifier used to indicate that the item is accessible anywhere, which states within Salesforce or outside it. It holds the broadest scope among all modifiers in Apex.

17. Public

It’s an access modifier used to indicate that the item is accessible anywhere within the Salesforce environment. 

Apex Governor Limits

The limits that the Apex runtime engine enforces to make sure that any runway Apex code and processes don’t violate the processing and don’t control the shared resources for the other users on the multitenant environment are Apex governor limits. 

Such limits are authenticated against apex transactions. 

Salesforce has defined various governor limits on every apex transaction, like

  • Limit 100 – For SOQL queries that can be done in a synchronous transaction.
  • Limit 200 – For SOQL queries that can be done in an Asynchronous transaction, etc.

Apex String

A set of characters with no character limits is known as a string. 

For example:

String name = 'Test';

In Salesforce, the String class offers various in-built methods.

Let’s review some most and less used functions:

1. abbreviate(maxWidth)

It returns an abbreviated version of the String of the specified length with the ellipses appended if the current String is longer than the specified length; otherwise, it returns the original String without ellipses. 

2. abbreviate(maxWidth, offset)

It returns an abbreviated version of the String of the specified length, starting at the specified character offset. The returned String comes with appended ellipses at the start and the end if the characters have been removed at these points.

3. center(size)

It returns a version of the current String of the specified size padded along with the spaces on the right and left so that it seems to be in the center. If the specified size is smaller than the current String size, the whole String is returned without any added spaces. 

4. capitalize()

It returns the current String with the first letter changed to the title case.

5. center(size, paddingString)

It returns a version of the current String of the specified size padded with the specified String on the right and left so that it seems in the center. The whole String is returned without padding if the specified size is smaller than the current String size. 

6. contains(substring)

It returns TRUE if the String calling the method includes the specified substring. 

String name1 = 'test1';
String name2 = 'test2';
Boolean flag = name.contains(name2);
System.debug('flag::',+flag); //true

7. escapeSingleQuotes(stringToEscape)

Before any single quotation, this method appends an escape character (\) and returns it in a string. Moreover, while creating a dynamic SOQL query, it avoids SOQL injection. It ensures that every quotation mark is used as enclosing strings, not as database commands. 

For example:

String s = 'Hello Tom';
system.debug(s); // Outputs 'Hello Tom'
String escapedStr = String.escapeSingleQuotes(s);
// Outputs \'Hello Tom\'

8. substring(startIndex)

It returns a substring that starts from the character at startindex and extends it till the last of the string. 

For Example:

String s1 = 'hamburger';
String s2 = s1.substring(3);
System.debug('s2'+s2); //burger

9. remove(substring)

It removes every occurrence of the mentioned substring from the String that calls the methods and returns the output. 

For example:

String s1 = 'Salesforce and';
String s2 = s1.remove('force');
System.debug( 's2'+ s2);// 'Sales and .com'

10. reverse()

It reverses every character of a string and returns it. 

For example:

String s = 'Hello';
String s2 = s.reverse();
System.debug('s2::::'+s2);// olleH  // Hello

11. trim()

It returns a string by removing every leading white space from a string. 

12. valueOf(toConvert)

It returns the string representation of the passed-in object. 

To learn more about: Methods for String in the apex  

When Should A Developer Choose Apex?

When we fail to implement the complex business functionality even with the existing and pre-built exceptional functionalities, we grab the assistance of Apex. 

Following are a few cases where we need Apex over Salesforce configuration.

Applications of Apex

We can use Apex when we need to :

  • Create email services for email setup and email blast.
  • Create Web services by integrating other systems.
  • Create complex business processes that existing workflow functionality or flows don’t support.
  • Conduct complex validation over various objects simultaneously and also custom validation implementation.
  • Perform any logic when a record modifies the relevant object’s record or is modified when some event has led the trigger to fire. 
  • Create custom transactional logic (that occurs over the whole transaction, not just with a single object or record), like using the Database methods for records updation. 

Developing Code In The Cloud 

In the cloud, the multitenant platform, the Apex programming language is saved and runs. On the platform, Apex is modified for data manipulation and access, and it facilitates you to append custom business logic to the system events. 

While Apex offers various benefits for business process automation on the platform, it’s not a general-purpose programming language.

You can’t use Apex to perform the below actions:

  • Render elements in the UI other than error messages.
  • Create temporary files.
  • Alter standard functionality, as Apex can just prevent the functionality from performing or add the additional functionality. 
  • Spawn threads

#Tip: Every Apex code runs on the Lightning Platform, a shared resource that all other organizations use. To ensure the consistent scalability and performance, the Apex execution is restricted by governor limits that make sure no Apex execution affects the entire service of Salesforce. It states that every Apex code is bounded by the number of operations (like SOQL or DML) that it can perform within a single process. 

Every Apex request returns a batch that includes 1 to 50,000 records. You can’t assume that your code just performs at a time on a single record. That’s why you need to implement programming patterns that choose bulk processing. You may run into the governor’s limits if you don’t do that. 

Apex Development Process

You need to get a Developer Edition account to develop Apex, write and test your code, and deploy it ahead. 

The below Apex Development Process is usually recommended:

  • Step 1: Obtain a Developer Edition account.
  • Step 2: Learn more about Apex.
  • Step 3: Write your Apex.
  • Step 4: While writing Apex, you also need to write tests.
  • Step 5: As an option, you can deploy your Apex to a sandbox organization and perform final unit tests.
  • Step 6: Deploy your Apex to your Salesforce production organization.

Post deploying your Apex, after you write and test it, you can also append your triggers and classes to an AppExchange App package. 

How Can We Help You?

We have a team of the best salesforce developers holding the required skills that you need to accomplish your next Salesforce development project. We hold the required caliber and will help you craft better relationships with your customers using the CRM platform tools. 

Moreover, our Salesforce development experts can assist you in making API calls to Salesforce servers to append CRM functionality to your site. 

Frequently Asked Questions About Apex Methods In Salesforce 

1. What are Apex Data types?

Apex Data types let us know what type of data can be stored and of which range. 
Below are the data types that Apex has predefined and Salesforce supports:
1. Primitive Data Type
2. Collections
3. sObjects
4. Enums

2. What is Class Variable? 

In object-oriented programming with classes, a class variable is any variable that’s declared with the static modifier of which a single copy exists, despite how many class instances exist. 
The class variables need to specify the below properties when they are defined:
1. Optional: Modifiers, like a public or final and static.
2. Optional: The variable’s value. 
3. Required: The variable’s data type, like Boolean or String.
4. Optional: The variable’s name.

3. What is Apex Class Methods?

In Apex, for Class methods, there are two modifiers:
1. Public, or
2. Protected
For method, the return type is mandatory, and if it doesn’t return anything, you need to mention void as the return type. Moreover, for the method, the body is also necessary.
To define a method, you need to specify the below:
Optional: The data type of the method returned value is an Integer or String. You need to use void if it doesn’t return a value. 
A method can hold just 32 input parameters.
2. Required: An input parameter list for the method is separated by commas; each is preceded by its data type and enclosed in parenthesis (). If there are no parameters, you can use a set of empty parenthesis.
3. Required: The method’s body is enclosed in braces {}. All the code and any local variable declarations are the contained base for the method. 

4. What Is an Apex Object?

An instance of a class is an object. This holds for both State and behavior. The memory for the data members is allocated just when you create an object. 
Classname objectname = new Classname();
For example:
Class example {
Example e = new Example();

5. How do you call a method in Apex?

Let’s call an Apex method with parameters:
In the object, pass the parameter’s value to an Apex method, whose properties are the same as the parameters of the Apex method. 
For example, 
If the Apex method takes a String parameter, you don’t need to pass a string directly. 
Instead, you can pass an object that includes a property holding a String as its value.

6. Is there a main method in Apex?

In Java, there is nothing like ‘main’ or ‘no,’ but there are tons of ways that you can use to run Apex code that relies on the developer’s intent.

7. Is Apex easy to learn?

Well, it’s not easy to learn Apex, but you can do that. 
It’s a journey that will lead to a brighter you, more desirable in the job market.

8. What is Apex language?

An object-oriented and strongly types programming language, Apex facilitates developers to execute the flow and transaction control statements in conjunction with calls to the Lightning Platform API on the Lightning Platform. 

9. How long does it take to learn Apex Code?

It will take around four weeks to learn Salesforce Apex. 

10. How to find a salesforce apex developer?

You can find a Salesforce Apex Developer as per your business needs. You can hire:
1. Full-time Salesforce Developer
2. Salesforce Developer on Project Basis 
You can connect with a Salesforce development company, which is widely known for its successful results. Before finalizing a Salesforce company, you can ask for its portfolio to get an idea about its performance. Moreover, consider reviewing its reviews and ratings, and if possible, try connecting with its past clients. 
This way, you can catch up with the best and perfect Salesforce developers for your Salesforce projects. 

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With a decade of experience in eCommerce technologies and CRM solutions, Virendra has been assisting businesses across the globe to harness the capabilities of information technology by developing, maintaining, and improving clients’ IT infrastructure and applications. A leader in his own rights his teammates see him as an avid researcher and a tech evangelist. To know how the team Virendra can assist your business to adopt modern technologies to simplify business processes and enhance productivity. Let’s Talk.