Last Updated on January 21, 2022

In the current financial world, top-notch technology solutions are in high demand for every type of transaction. Cryptocurrencies, for example, are a significant player nowadays, and the one that it runs is blockchain technology. So, in that context, the development and implementation of blockchain have been a high focus in industries. 

Statistically, this technology can decrease infrastructure costs for financial institutions and banks by around 30%. Besides that, it can potentially improve the economy with its application in various integral sectors, like healthcare, education, travel, and law. With blockchain, companies have grown over the years and surpassed multiple traditional hurdles. 

In fact, due to its several uses and applications, it is expected that the market size of Blockchain will grow to $20 billion approximately by 2024. If you want to focus on Blockchain app development for your own company, you should first understand all it entails. Specifically, the types of programming languages for Blockchain and their specifications.

 In this article, that is the main focus point you would encounter. So, read on. 

Types Of Blockchain Programming

Indeed, there are multiple variations of programming languages that are useful for blockchain development. However, before delving into them, you need to understand two Blockchain programming types. 

Blockchain Architecture Programming 

Before releasing the blockchain, you need to program the protocols and architecture related to it first. To settle this, coding is crucial. Previously, most of the rules related to Bitcoin in blockchain technology around 2009 were written in C++ programming language. This type of programming is mainly done using Java and C coding languages since they are more compatible with the hardware. 

Building A Smart Contract, Or Decentralized App (DApp) 

Another notable option is the DApp or Decentralized Applications. In regular centralized apps, the codes in the backend are on centralized servers only. However, in the case of DApps, the backend coding occurs within a decentralized peer-to-peer network. 

Here, calls are possible from the user interface of devices to the backend. Plus, programmers can code the front-end with any language type. 

Now that you have a basic idea for your blockchain application, here are the best programming languages for Blockchain. 

Best Programming Languages for Blockchain Applications

Solidity

Solidity

One of the rising programming languages in the current period is Solidity. Initially, it is made for creating smart contracts that work on EVM or Ethereum Virtual Machine. Blockchain developers can find solutions for many Blockchain-centric errors while coding with Solidity, compatible with Ethereum. 

It has unique features like static typing and variadic return variations, although it has similarities with ECMAScript syntax. This is a better choice if your end goal is Blockchain development specifically. 

Java

Java

This is one of the most notable Blockchain programming languages available, with a high usage volume and reliability guarantee. Developers can create unique money-making apps with Java easily without focusing on their internal infrastructure. This is possible because of the APIs in Java, full of Java-centric interfaces, packages, and classes. 

Programs in Java are easily portable to various platforms; this is possible since it follows a Write Once, Run Anywhere/WORA functionality. Java programming focuses on universal JVM or Java Virtual Machine and does not focus on system-based infrastructure. 

Python

Python

One of the best programming languages for Blockchain is Python, especially for those at beginner levels. Python programming comes with interpreted language format, which can become difficult for conducting blockchain-centric complicated cryptographic operations. 

Yet, this object-oriented language is simple for its performance-improving overheads. Additionally, you can prepare a prototype for your idea without any complicated coding necessary. Other benefits include its integrated open-source nature, plugins, and libraries. 

LLL

LLL

The full form of LLL is a Low-Level Lisp-like Language. The Lisp-like code is filled with a thin layer of parentheses to become compatible with EVM programming. Users can expect high-quality programming support with access to different lower-level power sources and memory locations. 

With LLL, programmers can reportedly create small-sized and efficient contracts in comparison to more higher-level options. Therefore, unlike Serpent, it is still quite relevant, especially for blockchain development. 

Varna

Varna

You can utilize the Varna programming language while running the Æternity blockchain. Compared to many other options available, this language is much more basic and easy to adapt to. It is pretty similar to Bitcoin Script in terms of usage simplicity. Though, it is essential to note that Varna is still in the progress stage. 

Obsidian

Obsidian

For Ethereum blockchain, Obsidian is one of the newer coding languages available. It creates a flowchart-like sequence for viewing the movement of contracts through various stages. Users have to mention the states as well as inter-state transitions while writing codes. 

There is a linear type system here that makes it simpler to implement a belt to any suspenders. Here, the compiler can utilize the types perfectly to stop typo-based errors or bug issues. Although okay for blockchain development, this programming language is another work in progress option in terms of usage. So, it is not fit for general coding. 

WASM

WASM

WASM or WebAssembly is a simplistic machine useful for speeding web usage using user-friendly compiled code that works in place of JavaScript for web page development. In terms of blockchain, WASM is useful as the base of EOSIO-based blockchain contracts. The first-gen contracts are usually made of C++ coding, and it is compiled in WASM format. 

Michelson

Michelson

In Tezos blockchain development, the system is a type of proof-of-stake that works with an explicit voting mechanism. This is useful for improving standard-level exchange protocols over time. Michelson is useful for writing this blockchain. One of the Blockchain languages has a static format and includes a rigid type checking structure that works around the stack. 

The inspiration for this coding language comes from Forth, another stack-driven programming language. Other functional approaches it has similarities with include ML (meta-language) and Scheme. 

Plutus

Plutus

Cardano blockchain is another type that works with a proof-of-stake structure. There are many layers to this, which contribute to removing settlements (exchange of funds) from control (decision-making section in smart contracts). Essentially, this blockchain is helpful for distributed consensus management. 

Here, Plutus is the primary programming language used to code the contracts. Pluto is similar to Haskel in many ways, which is another more high-profile stack-centric language. Here, the contract code is robust and functional, with static typing in data flows.

Sophia

Sophia

Sophia is a type of meta-language which has a more structured composition than basic ML. As one of the best Blockchain programming languages, it works on Æternity blockchain. This system combines proof-of-stake with a proof-of-work approach. Moreover, it highlights a link to IoT-based real-world objects. 

Sophia is the most suitable coding language to write these contracts and connect them to real-world objects or “Oracles”. There are features like explicit contracts data structures pre-built within that work well with blockchain development. 

JSON

JSON

JASON data format is helpful in blockchain development, with its packets controlling a few of the blockchains. For example, users can manage the XRP Ledger-centric transactions in Ripple via POSTing the data in JSON. 

Here, developers must fill in the coding into the fields and POST them afterward. Luckily, this means that users can utilize any Blockchain programming languages or libraries in this data format for transferring HTTP POST messages.

JavaScript

JavaScript

In terms of Blockchain programming or any other software development activities, JS or JavaScript is a known option. This multi-paradigm language works with functional, event-driven, and imperative (both prototype-based and object-oriented) programming styles. 

Among the different types available, this is highly popular, with around 9.7 million developers using it for their development practices at least. 

  • Lisk’s: The SDK (SideChain Development Kit) is coded using JS programming languages. Developers can create apps on this blockchain platform suitably. 

PHP

PHP

PHP or Hypertext Preprocessor is a very old-school programming language, developed back in 1995. In terms of blockchain-based development and platform usage, PHP is a known choice for most users. It is compatible with different types of blockchain solutions regardless of their complexity levels. Notable benefits of this are its object-oriented structure and expansive open-source nature. 

C++

C++

This is a general-purpose coding language with around 4.4 million users in development practices, statistically. The best specification of C++ is the ability to use it to manage resource-intensive apps smoothly. Many developers use it to create 3D games. 

  • EOS: In terms of Blockchain programming, EOS is the one that utilizes C++ most frequently because of its flexible nature. Developers can run big-scale apps over blockchain platforms with this language. Plus, C++ works with other languages as well that are compatible with WASM programming. 

C#

C#

C# is an object-oriented programming language developers use to create scalable apps with .NET framework compatibility. The origin of this dates back to 2000 and has been since used for developing robust cross-platform codes that operate across different OS types, like Android, Mac, Windows, and Linux. 

Two notable blockchain projects that work with C# coding are NEO (works with Java, JS, Go, and Python) and Stratis (Microsoft-powered Blockchain-as-a-Service provider).

Go

Go

GO is one of the best Blockchain programming languages that include functional features, although it is not simple to understand at first. The features here are Python and JS-based, which improve scalability, user-friendliness, and speed of solutions that GO is used on. Two notable Blockchain solutions run with GO- Hyperledger Fabric and Go-Ethereum.

Ethereum

Ethereum

This mainly works as the EVM and includes more than one programming language for Blockchain within its capacity. Examples include C++, Ruby, Java, Python, and GO. In Ethereum, the primary programming language in control is JS and supports the runtime environment of Ethereum via script execution. 

Simplicity

Simplicity

Simplicity is a high-level option best for coding smart contracts among the different programming languages for Blockchain development available. Open-source developers and professional programmers use it. 

It is helpful to decrease the low-level and complicated functionality of Bitcoin Script. Developers can usefully expect less development time with their projects while using Simplicity. Besides Bitcoin-based blockchains, it works with the Elements platform as well. 

Ruby

Ruby

One of the most useful Blockchain programming languages is Ruby which originally started in the mid-1990s. This is a general-purpose programming language that developers can use to create quick prototypes using high-level third-party APIs and plugins, all open-source. Developers use it efficiently to create robust apps and blockchain software projects due to its adaptability with multiple languages. 

Rust

Rust

Rust is one of the newest languages in the market. But, even now, developers are using it to create innovative, secure, and robust solutions. Open-source developers especially can quickly create efficient blockchain frameworks using Rust. They use a high-capacity mechanism to easily handle mutable states, use high-quality memory options, and optimize codes.

SQL

Microsoft Azure SQL

SQL or Structured Query Language was created under IBM for database-centric communication. Users can store, manipulate, and raise data queries using SQL easily. Multiple popular databases fall under this- MySQL, DB2, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and SQL Server, which are useful for creating apps. 

  • Aergo: This blockchain project is a ready-made solution for enterprises made under Blocko with Coinstack technology implementation. It works with SQL-centric smart contracts, which developers for enterprises can use to prepare and execute powerful commercial business-oriented smart contracts. 

Erlang

Erlang

This programming language is not highly popular compared to others in this list. However, blockchain development companies use it to create projects due to its features. They include high scalability, unparalleled back-end facility, better fault tolerance, and immutability. It is, thus, good for the peer-to-peer network. 

Rholang

Rholang

Rholang, as one of the Blockchain programming languages, works with a functional approach. It first studies the app in the form of multiple functions. Then, it solves them in sequence. Developers mainly use it to create smart contracts and other high-level blockchain projects. 

CX

CX

CX is one of the best programming languages that can operate as a contractual digital intermediary easily. It holds multiple useful features like a simple control process for errors and access to propelled cuts, arrays, and pointers. It can assemble over the programming language of GO, and users can skip discretionary code execution steps. Additionally, CX can integrate easily with OpenGL. 

Vyper

Vyper

One of the newest but useful programming languages for Blockchain is Vyper. This is a sub-part of Python; thus, the syntax of Vyper is similar to that of Python 3’s. This works as an alternative option for Solidity and is compatible with EVM. The control structure of Vyper is unique and includes features like recursive calling, modifiers, and infinite loops. 

Golang

Golang

This open-source Blockchain programming language has a similar syntax to C programming. For developers, it is easy to comprehend and use Golang, and testing professionals can easily use it. Statistically, around 800,000 or more developers utilize Golang.  

HyperLedger Fabric: The smart contracts with HyperLedge Fabrics compatibility or chain codes are coded using Golang. 

Conclusion

Overall, to create blockchain projects with efficient functionality, you should have a suitable programming language. Many of the conventional programming languages like Python and JavaScript help create scalable blockchain solutions. 

Plus, the newest versions like CX and Simplicity are also high-quality choices. Choose the one you are familiar with and broaden your understanding before using it for your projects. 

If you want to build your own blockchain-based app, hire the best mobile app development company that has the best blockchain developers and can turn your app ideas into reality.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why Are Blockchain Developers In Demand?

Yes, there is a high demand for blockchain developers in the market. Statistically, there was an increase in this demand at a rate of 517% between 2019 to 2020. In the future, the count is expected to grow further.

What Do You Need To Learn In Order To Start Developing On The Blockchain?

To properly develop Blockchain projects to the best of your ability, you need to know the following points:
-> Basics of developing blockchain, like its features and the notable platforms 
-> High-level programming language knowledge
-> An idea of the basic points of failure 
-> Crypto mining concept and cryptocurrencies 
-> Understanding of networking, web development, and security 

What Language Is Ethereum Coded In?

The languages used for coding Ethereum are Rust, C++, and GO, specifically the 2.0 version.

What Language Is Bitcoin Blockchain Written In?

The bitcoin blockchain is written in the C++ programming language. 

Which Cryptocurrency iI Written In Python?

Python is used to write multiple cryptocurrency projects, like Python-Binance, Hummingbot, and Alpha_Vantage.

Is It Worth Learning Blockchain?

Yes, there are multiple benefits to learning blockchain, which gives its usability in different sectors globally. These include industries like healthcare, security, legal institutions, finance, education, and more. Statistically, healthcare industry leaders would spend around $5 billion on Blockchain integration by 2025.

How Do I Become A Blockchain Developer?

To become a blockchain developer, you must learn-
-> The foundational concepts of blockchain, architecture, and ideas. 
-> Uses of the blockchain technology and applications 
-> Practical demonstration and use of coding via tutorials and tests 
-> Read through concepts and data on blockchain technology
-> Structure and features of smart contracts 

What Programming Languages Does Blockchain Use?

Blockchain development can work with different types of programming languages. However, the most popular languages in use include Python, JavaScript, Java, and C++. The newer versions like Solidity, CX, and Simplicity are also useful options.

How To Learn Blockchain Programming?

To properly learn Blockchain, you can go through different online tutorials, access communities, and follow blockchain-based news. Free courses and paid training courses are also available. 

Author

CTO at Emizentech and a member of the Forbes technology council, Amit Samsukha, is acknowledged by the Indian tech world as an innovator and community builder. He has a well-established vocation with 12+ years of progressive experience in the technology industry. He directs all product initiatives, worldwide sales and marketing, and business enablement. He has spearheaded the journey in the e-commerce landscape for various businesses in India and the U.S.