Last Updated on June 13, 2022
It is a digital era where mobile technologies grow each day with novel possibilities. The present generation depends upon smartphones, tablets, and other digital gadgets in one way. People enjoy exploring certain features of mobile phones, and most of their work becomes streamlined and synchronized with mobile phone assistance. Developing an app has transformed from just a hobby zone to a decent payable job. App development companies are searching for potent and talented app developers to collect the maximum profits for the technology industry. Innovative and creative apps make users curious and link their needs and requirements. App developers learn specific programming languages for supportive and flexible app development with expert technology tools.
With the growing popularity and demand for new and innovative applications, the global market will have a total revenue of $217 billion by 2027. Several reasons can back up this outstanding and dynamic growth of the development industry. For instance, mobile app users have soared high in recent years, forcing businesses and organizations to launch separate mobile app versions for their customers. Similarly, as more new programming languages are being introduced into the pool, developers now have the opportunity to come up with the most innovative and state-of-the-art solutions. Bearing this in mind, we have introduced the top programming languages popular for helping developers build different types of applications.
Types Of Mobile Apps
Mobile applications are on the rise, owing to the increasing demand for services and products within hand’s reach. These apps are versatile and responsive, but they also pack the same features as the corresponding websites or web applications. There are three major types of mobile apps- native, hybrid, and web apps. In the below section, we have briefly discussed these categories for your better understanding and clarification.
1. Native App
When an app is created for a single platform such as Android or iOS with its features and functionality, it is referred to as a Native App. Native apps and unique coding in the operating system with a specific programming language. The native App attains the capability to use the hardware and software of the device simultaneously. This App is built with high-end optimized technology and is compatible with emerging technologies such as cloud app development on mobile, web app comparison, GPS, etc.
Advantages Of Native App
- These applications can perform offline also.
- It is easier to develop.
- The native apps improve user experience and customer retention.
- Codes are simpler and don’t include too many diver features.
Disadvantages Of Native App
- Codes should be changed if the application is released for another OS.
- Specific skills are needed for developing the apps.
2. Hybrid App
Advantages Of Hybrid App
- These applications run on multiple platforms at a time.
- They require the least maintenance.
- You don’t need any specific skills based on programming languages.
- These apps can be easily integrated with different web-based services.
Disadvantages Of Hybrid App
- Features are complex and hard to decode for defect identification.
- The applications need additional security features as per the OS.
3. Mobile web apps
The mobile web applications need a web browser to install them. If there is no browser, you won’t be able to install them. Some apps need web extensions for use as they will be hosted on internet servers. These apps can be classified into two types- responsive and progressive web applications.
1. Responsive Web Programming
A responsive web programming application can operate based on orientation, screen size, and operating systems. To develop these apps, a developer needs to add flexible grids and layouts whose orientations will automatically adapt to the device or OS.
Advantages Of Responsive Web Programming
- They can improve user experience easily.
- You don’t need to create a different website and mobile versions for these applications.
- It is a cost-effective solution as there is no need to invest in multiple app versions.
- They are SEO friendly and can improve digital rank on search engines.
Disadvantages Of Responsive Web Programming
- Older IDE versions won’t be able to host these applications.
- Loading time will vary with different devices and OS.
2. Progressive Web Programming
Progressive web applications are based on hybrid technologies like CSS or HTML, but their behaviors represent a native. So, you will be able to download the app from a concerned web browser according to the OS it is compatible with.
Advantages Of Progressive Web Programming
- You can use the applications both online and offline.
- They can be accessed through multiple platforms.
- Cost-effective development solution for most companies.
- They don’t need a higher loading time.
Disadvantages Of Progressive Web Programming
- You do need to abide by the hardware limitations.
- PWA apps aren’t quite compatible with iOS.
Top Programming Languages For App Development
The list of programming languages used globally is endless. It is a major misconception that only the latest technologies are used for development purposes. Instead, many organizations work with C, C++, and other primitive languages. Bearing this in mind, we have listed the top programming languages that are in use for developing next-gen applications.
One of the most used programming languages is Python. It is easier to learn, but the language comes with simplified syntaxes. Being an open-source platform, you will get a huge community of developers so that you can easily connect with them and ensure that your problem gets clarified at the earliest. It packs all benefits of object-oriented programming, like defining instances as objects, separating methods, abstraction of data, and more.
- It allows developers to run each code separately without dealing with the complexities of multiple codes running at once.
- You won’t take too much time to learn Python and its syntaxes.
- In-built libraries for regular mobile apps to gaming apps will help you use the programming language for further app development.
- Codes built are simple to understand and debug over time.
- It can be used for artificial programming, machine learning, and IoT solutions.
- Being an interpretive language, it compiles and executes the codes much more slowly.
- Python needs a lot of RAM to operate.
Swift is mainly used for iOS app development. iOS is the main operating system used by almost all gadgets from Apple like iPads, iPhones, smartwatches, and more. Therefore, a developer will have several scopes to gain prominence with this programming language and develop the best solutions for different devices that feature iOS. It can also be used to develop different codes for Linux OS.
- One of the cornerstones of Swift language is the security features in-built within the platform that help developers avoid mistakes in codes.
- It is one of the fastest programming languages, thereby ensuring that mobile apps based on iOS can be developed in the quickest time.
- With Swift, you can make the app scalable to modify its codes based on the changes in business requirements.
- Its dynamic codes do not occupy too much space, thereby ensuring high-speed compilation and execution of the codes.
- You can integrate the Swift programming language with Objective-C.
- Despite being an open-source platform, Swift doesn’t offer too much talent.
- Integrating the applications with other IDEs and third-party tools is very difficult.
- It offers an outstanding speed that makes development much more productive and high-performing.
- You can link the JS codes with HTML and CSS for UI functioning and designing.
- Thanks to its extensive features, it can be used to develop both the front-end and back-end codes.
- All syntaxes are highly case sensitive, which proves to be a hassle for developers.
- Security of JS scripts needs to be implemented additionally since the functionalities are viewable to all.
While rust is considered a corrosive action in real life, it is said to be one of the fastest and most efficient languages in the programming world. With zero cost of abstraction and an easier learning curve, the language has already established its footprint in the development industry. Apart from developing the codes, you can also use them to understand patterns and match them for analytical purposes.
- It forms one of the most practical solutions that help developers build basic and complex codes.
- All errors are thrown in the logs during code compilation with no runtime of post-execution error.
- Rust will help you exercise optimal control over the codes and ensure they are safe and secured.
- Thanks to the built-in multitool editor, it will also help you edit multiple codes simultaneously, thanks to the built-in multitool editor.
- Installing this programming language on Windows OS is very difficult.
Scala is one of the newest players in the market. It came into existence and 2019 and yet managed to become one of the fastest and most efficient languages. This is mainly used in functional programming, thanks to its static type. Scala has been introduced mainly to address most issues faced by Java-like complex coding, lack of a powerful GUI, and more.
- Since Scala is based on the Java framework, it will easily help you learn the syntaxes and other features.
- Its IDE is outstanding and helps in the faster development of the applications.
- Scala’s concept will mean that you will be able to scale the apps as per the business requirements.
- You will be able to use the features of multiple inheritances.
- One of the major advantages of using Scala is that you can use it for data analytics.
- It is a hybrid platform between object-oriented programming and functional coding.
- Its developer or talent pool is very limited.
In recent years, Ruby has become quite popular in the recent time. Being a feature-rich platform will help you develop innovative and next-gen applications. Some of the most amazing features that you will enjoy while using this platform are dedicated keywords and an exception-handling facility. A garbage collection feature ensures that the memory used will be removed dynamically.
- You will use the codes efficiently with Ruby without any time delays.
- Libraries and built-in tools are present in abundance on the Ruby platform.
- Its open-source community is full of talented people who will help you to learn more about the problem.
- Thanks to the amazing learning curve, this language is best for beginners who want to learn more about app development.
- You won’t have to include too many codes to implement any feature.
- It is not a flexible programming language with which you can design any type of application.
- The performance time of Ruby language is why the platform isn’t high in productivity.
Derived from Google, the Golang or Go language has gained immense popularity. Thanks to its multithreading feature, many companies use this programming language to build applications with this programming language, which allows multitasking and swift completion of the processes. Its high-security level is another reason that has compelled top players in the global IT world to adopt this programming language and incorporate it into their systems.
- Golang is famous for the outstanding development and execution speed it offers to the developers, reducing redundancies and discrepancies.
- It doesn’t have a virtual runtime interface, so using the platform is so easy and smooth.
- The learning curve of the Golang language is smooth, thanks to the simplistic syntaxes.
- While debugging, you won’t have to waste your time reading the codes and interpreting the meaning of each statement.
- One of the major disadvantages of using the Go language is the poor support from library functions.
- It won’t offer you any type of community support which is a great disadvantage for budding developers.
One of the most commonly used programming languages is Java, and startups widely prefer multinational organizations. The first object-oriented programming language packs some of the best features that help develop state-of-the-technologies, like threads, inheritance, encapsulation, etc. You can run it on either the web browsers or by installing virtual machines that will need special jar files and an IDE.
- Java has a smooth learning curve, which helps developers learn several language features and implement them in coding.
- Being an object-oriented language, the implementation process is much easier than other forms of procedural language.
- It doesn’t need any platform for running the applications.
- You can create animations or perform multiple tasks simultaneously due to the presence of threads.
- Its automatic garbage collection feature removes excess or redundant memory and frees up the same.
- It is not suitable for developing iOS-based applications.
- Java alone cannot help in creating a complex and innovative user interface.
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9. R Programming
R programming is the basic technology used for statistical studies, data analytics, and data science. It can be integrated with graphical platforms to represent plots, charts, graphs, and more. R has become quite popular in recent times as data has gained importance in the digital world.
- Rather than having individual packages, R comes with a complete array of packages that will help you code in a varied manner.
- It is an open-source platform that will help you connect with the talent pool and gain more knowledge from there.
- Its plotting feature is far more developed than any other programming language used for data science and analytics: pie charts, superimposed graphs, scaled graphs, and more.
- One of the cornerstones of R language is its ability to get incorporated machine learning that will further help in the study of artificial intelligence.
- R is a programming language that offers developers more scope than any modern-day language.
- R lacks the basic security features, so one needs to implement additional encryption algorithms to protect the overall data.
- Apart from this, the data handling feature of this programming language is not apt.
Being almost similar to both Java and C, C++ is considered one of the most popular primitive languages. The codes developed here are lightweight, highly scalable, and easier to understand. Despite having a steep learning curve, its features and scope are truly spectacular that allow a developer to build different types of codes.
- It is a multi-paradigm programming language with which a developer can develop generic codes, use its object-oriented features and even use it as an imperative language.
- Thanks to the lower-level manipulation, you can easily scale the programs to meet the business requirements without major changes in the functional domain.
- You will have full control over its memory management, ensuring that multiple codes can be executed simultaneously without blocking the threads.
- Its speed is one of the main advantages, despite its background based on procedural language.
- In C++, pointers aren’t allowed, which is a great disadvantage because you won’t be able to locate a variable’s memory explicitly.
- Like Java, it doesn’t have any form of garbage collector that could reduce memory usage.
Most web and mobile applications that you see nowadays are developed on PHP. It is a very popular language and is used worldwide. Compared to what it was a decade back, PHP has introduced and adopted a wide range of improvements that have made it a highly-regarded programming language.
- It is an open-source platform with which you will have access to the talent pool.
- PHP is a user-friendly language that will ensure that you will be able to use all its functions with ease as a developer.
- It is a stable language that proves no such major changes have been introduced that would make your older codes redundant or non-useful.
- You won’t have to write lengthy codes to develop the applications.
- PHP has major security issues that need to be addressed separately.
- Its framework is not up to the mark.
No matter what company we are talking about, SQL is one of the major languages used by top players in the IT market. It is based on a relational database where each table is arranged in a proper hierarchy. SQL developers are high in demand due to the need for proper skills for handling the database, modifying data, managing the entire system, refreshing the database, etc.
- SQL ensures that all the queries can be processed at the fastest possible rate, regardless of how many tables are involved in the structure.
- To run the SQL platform, you won’t need coding skills like another platform.
- Its language has a proper standard.
- The interface of SQL is a complex one that can be difficult to understand at first.
- Redundancies and duplicity are the two major problems with SQL.
Just like you have Objective-C for Apple, C# has been developed specifically to be used with Microsoft. Its learning curve is steep, so you won’t find many developers excelling in this particular technology. It can be considered the next-gen version of C++, and therefore, the features are far more advanced and intuitive.
- Just like C++, the C# language is also an object-oriented language, so you will be able to use features like data abstraction and encapsulation.
- It is a high-level language as all the syntaxes are based on humanoid behaviors.
- It acts as a cross-platform for helping developers build both hybrid and native mobile applications.
- It comes with an in-built garbage collector for dynamics memory allocation and management.
- Its performance is not optimal, so it hasn’t been accepted globally yet.
Objective-C is one of the most primitive languages whose framework is derived from C. However, it is mainly used for developing iOS applications alongside Swift.
- You will be able to use the exception handling case out of bounds and the concept of stack overflow while building data systems.
- It is a stable language, and hence, several companies still rely on this platform even when Swift is there.
- You can integrate it with C++ to improve the overall functions and performance.
- The learning curve for Objective-C is stiff, and that can cause a huge problem.
- You won’t find a huge talent pool of developers skilled in Objective-C.
Another outstanding programming language used mainly to develop chatbots and robotic codes is Kotlin. It is almost similar to Java, and hence the learning curve is not so steep.
- Maintenance of Kotlin code is very easy, thanks to its advanced IDE.
- With the help of Kotlin, you will be able to improve the overall efficiency of several applications.
- It is a reliable programming language.
- Kotlin can create problems in the compilation process.
HTML5 is a type of markup language. This language gets used broadly on World Wide Web, shortly known as WWW. Of different markup or programming languages, HTML5 is one of the most famous languages. HTML5 is the fifth version of HTML. Along with this, this is the final major version of HTML as well. This language helps the developers a lot to find ease while creating a program or starting to develop any program.
This language can be used by different web browser vendors, such as Google Apple, Microsoft, and Mozilla. IT has a goal of improving the language with the support of the latest multimedia along with other new features. This language is easily readable by both computers and human beings. That is what makes this language a popular one. Also, this language is easily readable by devices like web browsers as well.
This is an open formatted markup language, which helps to create programming development so easily. And this is also a cross-platform mobile application, as this has a feature design and low power devices.
It will help you to wrap up a grand long coding in your website, into a single line coding. That is why programmers and developers go for this programming language while accessing a website or an app for developing that particular thing. This language can be chosen over any other language while creating some programming.
This is another important programming or markup language. This is a high-level, lightweight programming language. Also, this language is considered a multi-paradigm one. The programming language Lua has been designed primarily for embedding applications. Basically, this programming language Lua gets used for Embedded applications. This programming language is cross-platform. The compiled bytecode of the interpreter has been written in ANSI C. The programming language Lua is somehow simpler than C. The C API is there to embed this programming language into different applications.
The primary focus of the programming language Lua is scripting. And obviously, it gets used more for scripting only. Hardly does this programming language gets used for programming language as a standalone language. This programming language can be integrated into different programs that are written mainly in C++ or C. With the help of several third-party plugins, the programming language Lua can support other programming languages as well.
Corona is also a strong and powerful programming language like Lua. Along with that this programming language is an easy-to-learn one. This is also a cross-platform programming language with a perfect framework for different sectors. This framework is ideal for creating different types of apps rapidly. Also, this helps a lot while creating the games. These games can be for mobile devices. Not only for mobile devices but for desktop systems as well. That implies you can get access to multiple devices with the help of the programming language Corona. Once you create the project, let’s say for the android mobile. Now you can access that project on other devices as well.
You can publish that particular project on different devices with different operating systems, like Microsoft windows. Also, it will be okay with the Apple products, like iPhones and iPads. Android tablets will also be a system for the project to publish. And along with all these devices, that project will be able to be published on TV as well. That might be a Fire TV, Apple TV, or an Android TV.
This is not exactly a programming language, but an extension of another programming language. The other or the main programming language is known as Pascal. This extension provides a different programming feature, which is object-oriented. This language has features like methods and classes. Behind the development of this language, there is a story. In the beginning, this language has been developed by the Apple computer. Initially, this language was developed for a particular workshop development system, which was known as Lisa Workshop and development system.
This is also a draft for ANSI, which is object-oriented. But the draft has never been done to the full. But as previously discussed, this has been created by Apple, and some of their developers were really close to it. As it has not been done completely, this one remains as an extension for years. But this one is really a good programming language when it comes to object-oriented programming language, or to be a more precise extension to a programming language.
When the programming language comes with the term general-purpose, nothing is there to beat Perl at all. This is not just a single programming language. There are two strong and high-level programming languages. These languages also have properties like interpretation and dynamic properties. This programming language Perl is ideally referred to as the programming language Perl 5. Though there is a catch. From 2000 to 2019 Perl used to be referred to as Perl 6 as well. This was a redesigned sister language.
After October 2019, the name of the sister one got changed and has been named RAKU. This programming language helps the industry with a lot of things. As there are two high-level programming languages, they will be there to solve many problems at once. This language will make any programming or development faster than most other programming languages. These properties of this programming language make this language one of the most important general-purpose programming languages. And as those are sister languages, you don’t have to learn those differently to go ahead and use both of them while witting any program.
The minimalist dialect from a particular family is known as Lisp is the programming language Scheme. This programming language consists of a small standard core with different tools to be a language extension. This is also from a multi-paradigm one. So, you will be able to find two different factors in this programming language.
As this is a language from extension, this helps other languages to keep a good impact while using this language for programming. This can work together with some other languages like C or C++. So, you will get plenty of opportunities, while using this language to create any program or do some development.
This language from 1970 has been published by its creators, to perform tail-call optimization. Also, there are some other features like creating some object-oriented programming languages in the development sector. With the help of several third-party plugins, the programming language also can support other programming languages as well while that is needed to go ahead and perform the scripting.
This is also an object-oriented programming language. The most used sector for this language is website animation. This language is ideally used to program for the website development and software like adobe and all. So, you can easily understand the usage of the programming language Action Script. Being an object-oriented programming language, you will be able to use this programming language in some particular places, where you would like to use this language to get a perfect and focused result.
That is why broadly it gets used to create web animations broadly. With the help of this programming language, you will be able to write the script for those animations more easily than in other languages. That is why it is always better to use this language when you want that result. While focusing on a perfect object and a result, you will be able to use this language while can use some other languages with this to support your programming language. Use this language to access more software development easily and smoothly.
This is a block-based programming language, which has a high level. Along with that, it is a visually oriented programming language, which has a target group of 8-16 years. This one gets used as a tool regarding education for children. So, while using this language, you need to keep these factors in mind. This is an easy-going programming language. For being a high-level language, you will find too much ease while using this language to ahead for any programming.
Before you go ahead with any educational programming, you definitely need to choose this language to create the program. This is the best option when creating any educational programming for kids. This programming language will lead you to an easier path while accessing the scriptwriting or developing the program for that particular application. So, you will need to be very careful when choosing the programming language to create the program for different kinds of applications and programs.
Best Programming Language For Developing Mobile Apps For The Android Platform
While developing mobile applications for the Android platform, you cannot use all types of programming languages. Rather, you have to use certain specific platforms configured according to the Android OS. The two best platforms are Java and Kotlin. In the below section, we have explained the major features of these two programming platforms.
Java is one of the most popular programming platforms with which you can easily develop mobile applications for Android. Some of the main features due to which this programming language is popular for Android development are:
- It comes with a huge library of functions that will help you easily modify the applications as per the requirements.
- Being an open-source platform, you will have access to a huge talent pool.
- Java can be used on some of the most popular development frameworks like Eclipse, Hackerrank, and NetBeans.
- Java codes can be compiled and executed in any machine as the platform doesn’t need any machine-specific engine.
Kotlin has emerged as a powerful programming language for developing Android applications. Besides being feature-rich, it also comes with a huge talent pool that will help you to increase your knowledge.
- Kotlin can be integrated with Java to ensure higher efficiency of the codes written for Android applications.
- Thanks to the lazy loading feature, you can upload only the necessary features that need to be shown on the UI.
- Data classes are present in Kotlin, with which one can easily code according to Java minus the long length of codes.
Best Programming Language For Developing Mobile Apps For The iOS Platform
For developing programs on iOS, the two most important programming languages used are Swift and Objective-C. Objective-C is the modern version of C++, while Swift is introduced to tackle the challenges of Objective.
- With the help of Objective-C, you will be able to interoperate C++ codes for the development of iOS applications.
- To ensure that no additional memory is consumed, Objective-C comes with a garbage collector. It will allocate memory dynamically and ensure that code compilation and execution time can be reduced.
- As it comes with a stack, you can use it to pile up multiple threads so that different actions can be performed with ease. Its stack overflow feature will tell you when to stop the threads.
Swift is comparatively a new programming language with which you can easily develop iOS applications. Its smoother learning curve will help you grab the concepts and ensure you won’t have to wait for long to ensure that the codes written are of top-notch quality.
Best Programming Language For Developing mobile apps for both the iOS and Android platforms
Applications developed for operating on both the Android and iOS platforms need special programming languages that are cross-platform in nature. This section below has discussed some of the best languages used to build hybrid apps.
1. HTML5 and Apache Cordova
Apache Cordova is one of the best open-source platforms where you can write codes for iOS and Android OS based on HTML5 and CSS web technologies. Here, you will find a data wrapper with which the codes can be encapsulated to give the same feel as native applications.
2. C# and Xamarin
Xamarin has grown in popularity in recent years as it allows developers to make hybrid applications using the C# technology. It is a XAML UI language loaded with a myriad of features like data binding, styling and font effects, and more.
4. Dart and Flutter
Another great platform that you can use for hybrid app development is the Flutter. Even though it is a recent platform, it has gained large popularity.
Best Programming Language For Developing mobile Apps For The Web platform
1. Mobile-Optimized Websites
In mobile-optimized websites, all the contents, starting from buttons to text blocks and others, will be optimized and formed as responsive components to ensure when someone is witnessing the website on mobile UI, all the contents will be displayed.
2. Progressive Web Apps (PWAs)
Progressive web applications are those developed with hybrid programming languages, but their behaviors will be similar to those of native applications.
How To Choose The Right Programming Language?
With so many different programming languages, choosing which one will be the best choice is truly a difficult task. We have shed light on some of the factors you must be careful about if you want to develop the best state-of-the-art applications.
- The first thing you need to do is understand the platform where the application will operate. For example, if you want the software to run solely on iOS or Android, you should look for a programming language platform where native applications can be developed. Similarly, for applications meant to be used on both Android OS and iOS, you need to use cross-platform development platforms.
- Once you are done, you need to decide if you want the application to be manageable and scalable. If yes, then look for programming languages that offer both these functionalities.
- If you don’t have the provision to add another security layer, choose a programming language where all the codes will be encapsulated and well-protected.
- Always choose a programming language with high performance, faster compilation, and executions. It should help develop the proper application whose performance will be optimized.
In this article, we have explained the topmost programming languages commonly used to develop different types of applications. Starting from native apps that are restricted to the OS to the hybrid applications which can run on both iOS and Android OS, you will be able to develop the entire application easily with the most innovative features.
Some of these programming languages are based on procedural techniques, while most are based on object-oriented concepts. Each language type has different characteristics and features that help developers build the best codes required for the concerned project.